S·P·I·N - Study Platform on Interlocking Nationalisms


The nineteenth century abounds in nationally-minded proclamations, manifestos and other interventions in the public debate. Rhetorically, they usually link national culture, national character and national loyalty. Such rhetoric and discourse suffused public opinion at the time and was an indispensable factor in nationalist consciousness-raising; yet it is often neglected – or at best mentioned in passing  – by social historians and literary historians alike – as the mere ambient "background noise" or ephemeral salestalk of national movements.

The SPIN website aims to gather such material and to highlight it as an instrumental part of nationalist consciousness-raising in nineteenth-century Europe.

Many relevant political writings (often by Romantic or post-Romantic musical composers) address the field of music. This neglected corpus is separately highlighted in the SPIN textbase as part of the project "Music and Nationalism".

ClickAn integrated viewer interface for all databases, including the Statuary Database, is now online; click here to access.


Sami Frashëri, What was, what is Albania, and what shall it be? 1899 (in German, 1913 trl.)


Hoffmann von Fallersleben on Flemish and French in Belgium, 1838 (in German)

Jules Destrée, Lettre au Roi sur la séparation de la Wallonie et de la Flandre, 1912 (in French)


Proceedings of the first revived Floral Games of Barcelona, 1859 (in Catalan, 2.5 MB)


Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin on England, 1924

The composer Ralph Vaughan Williams on nationality in music, 1934


Cyprien Robert on the need to counterbalance pan-Slavism with a pan-Latinist movement (1847) (French)

Léon Gautier on the Chanson de Roland as a French national epic, 1872 (French)

Ernest Renan in praise of the French language (1888) (French)

Camille Jullian on the Rhine as a Gaulish/French river (1915) (French)


From the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (1806) to the Wartburg Feast (1817)
J.J. Görres on the need to retrieve the remains of heroic-chivalric culture from neglected sources (1807) (German)

Proclamation by Frederick William III of Prussia to his people (1813) (English/German)

E.M. Arndt on the Rhine as a German River (1813) (English / German)

Karl Hoffmann, Report on 1814 commemorative bonfires across Germany for the anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig (German, large PDF file)

Victory allocution by F.C. Dahlmann in the aula of Kiel University, 7 July 1815 (German)

H.F. Massmann's speech at the commemorative bonfire of 18 October 1816 (German)

Contemporary pamphlet on the Wartburg Fest 1 (German)

Contemporary pamphlet on the Wartburg Fest 2 (German)



Jacob Grimm on Love of the Fatherland (1830) (Latin) (English translation)


Germanisten congresses of 1846 and 1847

Background information by Katinka Netzer

Proceedings of the Frankfurt Congress (1846) part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4, part 5, part 6

Proceedings of the Lübeck Congress (1847) part 1, part 2, part 3part 4, part 5part 6


Around the Frankfurt Parliament (1848)
Jacob Grimm on the futility of Danish efforts to resist the hegemony of Germany, 1812 and 1848 (German)

Proceedings of the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848 (external link, German)

Acclamation of Ernst Moritz Arndt in the 1848 Frankfurt Parliament (German)

Ernst Moritz Arndt's speech on Dutch-German relations (1848) (German)

Jacob Grimm urges a declaration of war against Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein in the 1848 Frankfurt Parliament (German)



Twelve theses against the un-German mentality (1933) (German; for a reproduction of the original flyer, follow this link)


Adamantios Korais, Mémoire sur l’état actuel de la civilisation en Grèce (in French)



Robert Emmet’s speech from the dock (1803)


Articles by Thomas Davis in The Nation (mid-1840s)

On the national importance of Irish antiquities and monument protection (English)

Academic education and an Irish university system (English)

Historical Monuments of Ireland (English)

“National Art” (English)

The Irish language (English)

Review article on The Ballad Poetry of Ireland (English)

A Ballad History of Ireland (English)


Articles by Patrick Pearse (c. 1900)

Gaelic Prose Literature (1897)


Douglas Hyde, “The necessity for de-Anglicising Ireland” (1892)

W.B. Yeats on “Nationality and Literature” (1893)

Taoiseach Éamon de Valera on Ireland, 1943


Pasquale Mancini on nationality in international law (external link, Italian)


Krste Misirkov’s journal Vardar (Odessa, 1905) (Macedonian)


1808-1830 (including Belgium/Flanders)

Prudens van Duyse: Ode to the Netherlands Language (Dutch)


Alexandre Herculano, “Monumentos pátrios” (1838) (Portuguese)

"Pundits at war"

E.M. Arndt on the Rhine as a German river (1813) (English / German)

Edgar Quinet, 1815 et 1840 : on the French need for a natural frontier along the Rhine (1840) (external link, in French)

Jacob Venedey, “La France, L'Allemagne, et la sainte alliance des peuples” (1841) (in French)

Jacob Venedey, “Der Rhein” (1841) (in German)

Ernst Moritz Arndt's speech in the Frankfurt Parliament on Dutch-German relations (1848) (German)

Jacob Grimm on the ethnolinguistic template for German and European politics (1848) (German)

Jacob Grimm urges a declaration of war against Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein in the 1848 Frankfurt Parliament (German)

D.F. Strauss on the Franco-German war in a letter to Renan (1870) (English)

Thomas Carlyle writes to The Times in support of Germany (1870) (English)

Heinrich von Treitschke argues the Prussian demand for a German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine (1870) (German / English)

Theodor Mommsen justifies Germany’s war aims to the Italians (1870) (Italian / English)

Auguste Geffroy reviews Mommsen’s “Agli Italiani” (1870) (French)

N. Fustel de Coulanges, “Is Alsace German or French?” (1870, against Mommsen) (French)

Ernest Renan vindicates French civilization against [German] “culture” (1878) (French)

Ernest Renan deplores Germany’s moral decline (1879) (French)

Ernest Renan, “Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?” (1882)  (French)

J.A. Cramb on Treitschke’s and Germany’s anti-English chauvinism (1913/14) (English)

Ernst Haeckel denounces Britain’s war-mongering (1914) (German)

The publicity war between British and German intellectuals (1914) (English/German)

Camille Jullian on the Rhine as a Gaulish/French river (1915) (French)

Thomas Mann vindicates German “Kultur” and militarism (1914) (German)

Emile Durkheim and Ernest Denis, “Qui a voulu la guerre?” (1915) (external link, French)

Emile Durkheim against Treitschke’s “German mentality” (1915) (French)

"Racial thought"

E.A. Freeman, “Race and Language” (1879) (English)


Rules and membership of the Highland Society of London (1783) (English)

[Walter Scott]: Hints Adressed to the Inhabitants of Edinburgh (1822) (English)

Slavic lands and Pan-Slavism

František Palacký refuses to take a seat in the Frankfurt Nationalversammlung, 1848 (English)

Manifesto of the Prague Slavic Congress to the nations of Europe, by Palacký, 1848 (English)

Cyprien Robert on cultural and political pan-Slavism (1847) (French)